Shift in the origin of foreign direct investment from West to East, the case of Hungarian industry
After the change in the system foreign direct investment (FDI) has played an extremely important role in the integration of East Central European countries into the world economy. FDI has also contributed to their socio-economic transformation and to the development of a new economic spatial pattern. In Hungary FDI has promoted the renewal of industry and the appearance of new branches. One of them is car industry which is a leading branch in Hungarian industry. It is closely connected to global economy. The FDI-led Hungarian industry is concentrated in space too. During the last decade, which is the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution not only the amount of FDI has changed, but also its origin has started to transform. In addition, new challenges (like Industry 4.0, global pandemic) have appeared which can also modify international capital flows. Based on different databases, the main question is how all these have affected the Hungarian industry depending closely on global economy. What kind of new trends can be observed in the sectoral and spatial structure of the industry in connection with the changes in the major characteristics of foreign direct investments. It is also a question, whether these will have any impact on the spread and application of Industry 4.0 technologies. The Hungarian experiences of this research supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (project number: K 125091) may represent to a certain degree the major features of the foreign direct investments into the industry of other post-socialist countries as well.
Mots clés : foreign direct investment|industry |Industry 4.0 |spatial pattern|Hungary