Julia FROTEY, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, France
Since 2014, and the first European directive on “alternative fuels”, open charging stations for electric vehicles have acquired new functionalities. While the first charging stations (2010-2014) were not connected to the ICT networks, the latest ones now provide real "connected mobility services" (charging bill, parking space reservation, electricity and power control…).
The objective of this paper is, first, to show the evolution of the services attached to the open charging stations: they can be considered today as anchor points of the smart city, because of the numerous digital services they provide. Thanks to a field survey conducted among 45 French electric mobility stakeholders, between 2017 and 2020 (during our PhD in urban planning), we document the digital transition that affects electromobility and transforms the uses of car (Frotey, 2021).
Second, we aim at showing the spatial development of the charging stations networks though the last decade. Thanks to a GIS database, we mapped the location of the charging stations in the Hauts-de-France region (Northern France). Data on more than 1000 charging stations were collected between 2017 and 2019 which show dispersion and concentration effects at a regional scale (Frotey & Castex, 2017, Frotey & Castex, 2018). The 45 interviews we conducted help us understand how the charging infrastructure networks were planned by regional stakeholders (Frotey, 2020).
Keywords: Charging station|smart mobility |Planning policy| infrastructures network planning |France