Mladen MARADIN, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Nenad BUZJAK, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Urban green spaces are cooler islands within the city area that reduce an urban heat island effect. This cooling effect is most pronounced in the case of parks due to their size and vegetation cover type, and the cooler area of parks is referred to as Park Cool Island (PCI). For that reason, parks have great importance as places of comfort and recreation for nearby residents. This research analyzes the PCI of two parks in the city of Zagreb – the Botanical Garden of the Faculty of Science, which is small in size (4,7 ha) and located near the city centre; and Maksimir Park, which is larger (316 ha) and located in the city suburb. Both parks are covered mostly with forest-type vegetation, which means that the maximum cooling effect will occur during the day – in the late afternoon (daytime PCI). Measurements so far have confirmed the cooling effect of the studied parks, which is more pronounced for Maksimir Park due to its vegetation cover, size and location. The PCI features of both parks were analyzed for the summer months of 2021 (June-August) when several heat waves of different duration and intensities were registered. It can be assumed that during heat waves, i.e. periods of prolonged significantly higher surface temperatures relative to those normally expected, PCI will be even more pronounced. The analysis is conducted using hourly data measured by automatic data loggers at measuring points in the Botanical Garden and Maksimir Park as well as data measured by the meteorological stations of the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service Zagreb-Gric and Zagreb-Maksimir. The analysis will include different measurement points within the parks to determine the impact of different environments (vegetation types, vicinity of water surfaces, location within or on the edge of the park) on PCI features during extreme temperature occurrences.
This work has been supported in part by Croatian Science Foundation under the project UIP-2017-05-9066.
Keywords: park cool island|heat wave|Zagreb