Umar GAIRABEKOV, ,
Lubov MAKHMUDOVA, ,
The North Caucasus is one of the oldest oil-producing regions in the world. The development of the oil industry in the mountainous and foothill landscapes of the region has led to a large-scale impact on the environment and the transformation of natural landscape complexes into natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic. The development of oil fields in the vulnerable mountain and foothill landscapes of the North Caucasus, for almost two centuries, contributed to the formation of a vast and internally heterogeneous area of impact of oil production facilities on the surrounding nature complexes. The period of intensive development of oil fields and the formation of a powerful infrastructure of the oil refining and petrochemical industries coincided with the development of urban areas and urban landscapes. The development of oil fields and at the same time the formation of an urban environment contributed to the total pollution of soils, grounds, surface and ground waters. One of the reasons for this situation is the low level of environmental friendliness of technological processes used in the extraction, processing, storage and transportation of oil, as well as emergency situations that led to the penetration of various pollutants into the environment. Another reason is the insufficient scientific substantiation of measures to protect the natural environment during the development of oil fields in mountainous and foothill areas.
The North Caucasus is characterized by a wide variety of mountain and foothill landscapes, has its own specifics both in terms of the methods for assessing the carbon balance and the types of ecosystems on which research will be carried out as part of the program for the development of Carbon polygons in Russia. In this regard, the study of greenhouse gas emissions in oil-contaminated areas with the aim of developing innovative methods for reclamation and sequestration of greenhouse gases is currently relevant.
Keywords: mountain landscapes|oil prodution|climate|urban areas|nature