César DUCRUET, CNRS - UMR 7235 EconomiX , France
Mariantonia LO PRETE, ULCO (Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale) - TVES (Laboratoire Territoires, Villes, Environnement, Société), France
While only 2.5% of global greenhouse gases emissions originate from maritime transport, 75% of such emissions occur near the coastline and within port cities. In addition, road transport remains the principal mode to carry goods between ports and hinterlands, with important traffic bottlenecks at the terminals. Port communities are engaged in numerous projects and initiatives to mitigate these negative externalities, but a ‘global picture’ of the situation remains lacking. This research thus proposes a systematic analysis of urban, port, congestion, and air pollution indicators at the city level, to better understand the interlinkages at stake across Europe. Results show that pollution and congestion increase with traffic size and city size. In addition, congestion relates more with containers, vehicles, and population (cf. mixed traffic in high-density areas), while air pollution is closer to dry bulk and general cargo (e.g. dust clouds as from grain or coal terminals). Based on the resulting typology of port cities, we review local practices in a variety of places, from environmental monitoring systems to modal split obligations, truck appointment systems, port dues and incentives, and various solutions favoring intermodal transport to/from certain gateways. The discussion also includes other types of pollution of which noise and light. While solutions tend to concentrate along the Le Havre-Hamburg range and the Benelux in particular, southern port cities show a higher degree of collective action, across the whole Mediterranean.
Keywords: Air pollution|Congestion|Containerisation|Europe|Port cities